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  1. Pharmacology
  2. Preclinical Investigation
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  1. Ames MM; Spreafico F Selected pharmacologic characteristics of idarubicin and idarubicinol. Leukemia 1992;6 Suppl 1 :70-5
  2. Beijnen JH; Neef C; Bouma J; Paalman AC; Underberg WJ Analysis of 4-demethoxydaunorubicin and metabolites in plasma and urine. Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo) 1988 Sep;36(9):3503- 1 l
  3. Berman E; McBride M Comparative cellular pharmacology of daunorubicin and idarubicin in human multidrug-resistant leukemia cells. Blood 1992 Jun 15; 79(12):3267-73
  4. Camaggi CM; Carisi P; Strocchi E; Pannuti F High-performance liquid chromatographic analysis of idarubicin and fluorescent metabolites in biological fluids. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol 1992;30(4):303-6
  5. Camaggi CM; Strocchi E; Carisi P; Martoni A; and others Idarubicin metabolism and pharmacokinetics after intravenous and oral administration in cancer patients: a crossover study. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol 1992;30(4):307-16
  6. Capranico G; Tinelli S; Zunino F Formation, resealing and persistence of DNA breaks produced by 4-demethoxydaunorubicin in P388 leukemia cells. Chem Biol Interact 1989;72(1 -2): 113-23
  7. Davis CL; Rohatiner AZ; Amess JA; Lister TA Oral idarubicin as a palliative agent in leukemia. Hematol Oncol 1991 Jan-Feb;9(1):59-60
  8. de Graaf SS; Riley-Stewart CA; Evans WE Improved high-performance liquid chromatographic method using loop-column extraction for analysis of idarubicin and idarubicinol in plasma. J Chromatogr 1989 Jul 21 ;491 (2):501-6
  9. Eksborg S; Nilsson B Reversed-phase liquid chromatographic determination of idarubicin and its 13-hydroxy metabolite in human plasma. J Chromatogr 1989
  10. Mar 24;488(2):427-34 A name="ref_10">
  11. Eksborg S; Soderberg M; Nilsson B; Antila K Plasma pharmacokinetics of Idarubicin and its 13-hydroxymetabolite after intravenous and oral administration under fasting and non-fasting conditions. Acta Oncol 1990;29(7):921-5
  12. Elbaek K; Ebbehj E; Jakobsen A; Juul P; and others Pharmacokinetics of oral idarubicin in breast cancer patients with reference to antitumor activity and side effects. Clin Pharmacol Ther 1989 Jun;45(6):627-34
  13. Fujita H; Ogawa M; Masaoka T; Yamada K; Kimura K [A pharmacokinetic study of idarubicin hydrochloride, a new anthracycline anti-tumor drug, in patients with acute leukemia. Idarubicin Study Group] Gan To Kagaku Ryoho 1992 Jun;19(6):791-8
  14. Fukushima T; Ueda T; Nakamura T [Pharmacokinetics and action mechanism of anthracyclines] Gan To Kagaku Ryoho 1992 Apr; 19(4):445-50
  15. Hochster H; Green M; Liebes L; Speyer JL; and others Good tolerance of weekly oral idarubicin: (4-demethoxydaunorubicin): a phase I study with pharmacology. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol 1990;26(4):297-300
  16. Mross K; Hamm K; Schultze-Seemann W; Burk K; Hossfeld DK Tissue disposition and plasma concentrations of idarubicin after intravesical therapy in patients with bladder tumors. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol 1992;29(6):490-4
  17. Reid JM; Pendergrass TW; Krailo MD; Hammond GD; Ames MM Plasma pharmacokinetics and cerebrospinal fluid concentrations of idarubicin and idarubicinol in pediatric leukemia patients: a Childrens Cancer Study Group report. Cancer Res 1990 Oct 15;50(20):6525-8
  18. Robert J [Pharmacokinetics of new anthracyclines] Bull Cancer (Paris) 1988;75(2): 167-74
  19. Robert J; Rigal-Huguet F; Huet S; Pris J; Hurteloup P Pharmacokinetics of idarubicin after oral administration in elderly leukemic patients. Leukemia 1990 Mar;4(3):227-9
  20. Robert J; Rigal-Huguet F; Hurteloup P Comparative pharmacokinetic study of idarubicin and daunorubicin in leukemia patients. Hematol Oncol 1992 MarApr;10(2): 111-6
  21. Speth PA; Minderman H; Haanen C Idarubicin v daunorubicin: preclinical and clinical pharmacokinetic studies. Semin Oncol 1989 Feb;16(1 Suppl 2):2-9
  22. Stewart DJ; Grewaal D; Green RM; Verma S; and others Bioavailability and pharmacology of oral idarubicin. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol 1991; 27(4):308- 14
  23. Strolin Benedetti M; Pianezzola E; Fraier D; Castelli MG; Dostert P Stereoselectivity of idarubicin reduction in various animal species and humans. Xenobiotica 1991 Apr;21(4):473-80
  24. Umsawasdi T; Felder TB; Jeffries D; Newman RA Phase II study of 4-demethoxydaunorubicin in previously untreated extensive disease non-small cell lung cancer. Invest New Drugs 1990;8 Suppl 1:S73-8
  25. Zanette L; Zucchetti M; Freshi A; Erranti D; and others Pharmacokinetics of 4-demethoxydaunorubicin in cancer patients. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol 1990;25(6):445-8


  1. Adams N; Blake C; Broadhurst MJ; Bushnell DJ; and others Synthesis and antitumor activity of novel 4-demethoxyanthracyclines. J Med Chem 1990 Sep;33(9):2375-9
  2. Bachur NR; Yu F; Johnson R; Hickey R; and others Helicase inhibition by anthracycline anticancer agents. Mol Pharmacol 1992 Jun;41 (6):993-8
  3. Belloc F; Lacombe F; Dumain P; Lopez F; and others Intercalation of anthracyclines into living cell DNA analyzed by flow cytometry. Cytometry 1992; 13(8):880-5
  4. Busch FW; Schmittele U; Ehninger G Toxicity of novel anthracycline derivatives towards normal myeloid bone marrow progenitor cells (CFU-GM) is not increased by verapamil. Blut 1990 Apr;60(4):219-22
  5. Cairo MS; Toy C; Sender L; van de Ven C Effect of idarubicin and epirubicin on in vitro polymorphonuclear function: diminished superoxide radical fo'~^ tion compared to their parent compounds daunorubicin and doxorubicin. J Leukoc Biol 1990 Mar;47(3):224-33
  6. Catapano CV; Guaitani A; Broggini M; Corada M; and others Hepatobiliary metabolism and urinary excretion of 4-demethoxydaunorubicin as compared to daunorubicin in rats. Anticancer Res 1988 Jul-Aug;8(4):725-31
  7. Christoffersen PS; Rosmussen KK; Hermansen K Cardiovascular effects of doxorubicin (Adriamycin) and 4-demethoxydaunorubicin (Idarubicin) in the conscious rat. Pharmacol Toxicol 1988 Jan;62(1):54-6
  8. Corneo G; Pogliani E; Biassoni D; Tripputi P Inhibition of DNA restriction enzyme digestion by anthracyclines. Ric Clin Lab 1988 Jan-Mar;18(1):19-2z
  9. Damiani D; Michieli M; Revignas MG; Russo D; and others Proliferation and maturation effects of in-vivo granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor in acute non-lymphocytic leukemia. Haematologica 1992 Jan-Feb;77(1):25-9
  10. orr RT; Bozak KA; Shipp NG; Hendrix M; and others In vitro rat myocyte cardiotoxicity model for antitumor antibiotics using adenosine triphosphate/protein ratios. Cancer Res 1988 Sep 15;48(18):5222-7
  11. Dorr RT; Shipp NG; Lee KM Comparison of cytotoxicity in heart cells and tumor cells exposed to DNA intercalating agents in vitro. Anticancer Drugs 1991 Feb;2(1):27-33
  12. Erttmann R; Erb N; Forcadell de Dios P; Neurath C; and others [Anthracycline transport in sensitive and resistant leukemia cells] Klin Padiatr 1989 JanFeb;201 (1):40-5
  13. Ferrazzi E; Woynarowski JM; Arakali A; Brenner DE; Beerman TA DNA damage and cytotoxicity induced by metabolites of anthracycline antibiotics, doxorubicin and idarubicin. Cancer Commun 1991 Jun;3(6): 173-80
  14. Gao YG; Wang AH Influence of aglycone modifications on the binding of anthracycline drugs to DNA: the molecular structure of idarubicin and 4-0-demethyl-11-deoxydoxorubicin complexed to d(CGATCG). Anticancer Drug Des 1991 Jul;6(3): 137-49
  15. Grankvist K; Stendahl U; Henriksson R Comparative study of demethoxydaunorubicin with other anthracyclines on generation of oxygen radicals and clonogenic survival of fibroblasts. Pharmacol Toxicol 1989 Jul;65(1):40-4
  16. Koulmanda M; Pietersz G; McKenzie IF; Mandel TE Prolongation of fetal pancreas allograft survival in mice treated with anti-IL-2 receptor monoclonal antibody (PC61) conjugated with idarubicin. Transplant Proc 1990 Oct; 22(5):2113-4
  17. Kuffel MJ; Reid JM; Ames MM Anthracyclines and their C-13 alcohol metabolites: growth inhibition and DNA damage following incubation with human tumor cells in culture. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol 1992;30(1):51-7
  18. Le Bot MA; Begue JM; Kernaleguen D; Robert J; and others Different cytotoxicity and metabolism of doxorubicin, daunorubicin, epirubicin, esorubicin and idarubicin in cultured human and rat hepatocytes. Biochem Pharmacol 1988 Oct 15;37(20):3877-87
  19. Limonta M; Biondi A; Giudici G; Specchia G; and others Cytotoxicity and DNA damage caused by 4-demethoxydaunorubicin and its metabolite 4-demethoxy-13-hydroxydaunorubicin in human acute myeloid leukemia cells. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol 1990;26(5):340-2
  20. Montecucco A; Pedrali-Noy G; Spadari S; Lestingi M; Ciarrocchi G Effects of DNA-binding drugs on T4 DNA ligase. Biochem J 1990 Mar 1 ;266(2):379-84
  21. Mottram PL; Pietersz GA; Purcell LJ; Clunie GJ; McKenzie IF Immunosuppression by anti-CD8 (Ly-2.1) MAb conjugated to idarubicin: studies in the mouse heart graft model. Transplant Proc 1990 Oct;22(5):2111 -2
  22. Mottram PL; Pietersz GA; Purcell LJ; Krauer K; and others Deletion of graft reactive cells by idarubicin-anti-CD8 (Ly-2.1) immunoconjugate: studies in the mouse heart graft model. Transplant Proc 1991 Feb;23(1 Pt 1):499-500
  23. Mottram PL; Pietersz GA; Purcell LJ; Krauer K; McKenzie IF Immunosuppression by aminopterin or idarubicin conjugated to anti-CD8 in the mouse heart allograft model. Transplant Proc 1992 Oct;24(5):2301
  24. Mottram PL; Smyth M; Pietersz GA; Clunie GJ; McKenzie IF Anti-T cell monoclonal antibodies for in vivo treatment of cardiac allograft rejection in mice. Transplant Proc 1989 Feb;21(1 Pt 1):1020-1
  25. Mottram PL; Smyth M; Pietersz GA; Clunie GJ; McKenzie IF Anti-T cell-specific immunoconjugates in mice: in vivo effects. Transplant Proc 1989 Oct;21 (5):3757-8
  26. Muller MR; Lennartz K; Boogen C; Nowrousian MR; and others Cytotoxicity of adriamycin, idarubicin, and vincristine in acute myeloid leukemia: chemosensitization by verapamil in relation to P-glycoprotein expression. Ann Hematol 1992 Nov;65(5):206-12
  27. Pietersz GA; Smyth MJ; McKenzie IF Immunochemotherapy of a murine thymoma with the use of idarubicin monoclonal antibody conjugates. Cancer Res 1988 Feb 15;48(4):926-31
  28. Pratesi G; Capranico G; Binaschi M; De Isabella P; and others Relationships among tumor responsiveness, cell sensitivity, doxorubicin cellular pharmacokinetics and drug-induced DNA alterations in two human small-cell lung cancer xenografts. Int J Cancer 1990 Oct 15;46(4):669-74
  29. Rivory LP; Pond SM; Winzor DJ The influence of pH on the interaction of lipophilic anthracyclines with bovine serum albumin. Quantitative characterization by measurement of fluorescence quenching. Biochem Pharmacol 1992 Dec 15:44(12):2347-55
  30. Rizzo V; Penco S; Menozzi M; Geroni C; and others Studies of anthracycline DNA complexes by circular dichroism. Anticancer Drug Des 1988 Aug;3(2): 103-15
  31. Schott B; Robert J Comparative activity of anthracycline 13-dihydrometabolites against rat glioblastoma cells in culture. Biochem Pharmacol 1989 Nov 15;38(22):4069-74
  32. Schott B; Robert J Comparative cytotoxicity, DNA synthesis inhibition and drug incorporation of eight anthracyclines in a model of doxorubicin-sensitive and -resistant rat glioblastoma cells. Biochem Pharmacol 1989 Jan 1; 38(1): 167-72
  33. Smyth MJ; Bogdanovski M; McKenzie IF; Pietersz GA Antitumor activity of idarubicin-monoclonal antibody conjugates in a disseminated thymic Iymphomamodel. Cancer Res 1991 Jan 1;51(1):310-7
  34. Smyth MJ; McKenzie IF; Pietersz GA The effect of idarubicin monoclonal antibody treatment of first-set rejection of murine skin allografts. Transplantation 1989 Jul;48(1):77-9
  35. Smyth MJ; Pietersz GA; McKenzie IF Immunosuppression of graft rejection with idarubicin-monoclonal antibody conjugates by elimination of T cell subsets in vivo. Transplantation 1988 Jul;46(1):126-31
  36. Stipani I; Capalbo MI; Zara V Effect of anthracycline antibiotics on the reconstituted mitochondrial tricarboxylate carrier. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 1989 Nov 15;164(3): 1281-7
  37. Woods KE; Ellis AL; Randolph JK; Gewirtz DA Enhanced sensitivity of the rat hepatoma cell to the daunorubicin analogue 4-demethoxydaunorubicin associated with induction of DNA damage. Cancer Res 1989 Sep 1 ;49(17):4846-51


  1. Abad-Esteve A; Diaz-Rubio E; Jimeno JM; Rosell R; and others Oral idarubicin in measurable gastric cancer. Am J Clin Oncol 1989 Feb; 12(1): 14-6
  2. Alberts AS; Falkson G; Rapport BL; Uys A A phase II study of idarubicin and prednisone in multiple myeloma. Tumori 1990 Oct 31;76(5):465-6
  3. Arcese W; Meloni G; Giona F; Vegna ML; and others Idarubicin plus ARA-C followed by allogeneic or autologous bone marrow transplantation in advanced acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Bone Marrow Transplant 1991;7 Suppl 2:38
  4. Ardizzoni A; Pennucci C; Fusco V; Gulisano M; and others Oral chemotherapy for poor risk small-cell lung cancer patients with combined idarubicin and etoposide. Anticancer Res 1989 Jul-Aug;9(4):937-9
  5. Ardizzoni A; Pronzato P; Repetto L; De Palma M; and others Phase II trial of oral idarubicin in advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Cancer Invest 1988;6(4):409- 11
  6. Avvisati G; Mandelli F; Petti MC; Vegna ML; and others Idarubicin (4-demethoxydaunorubicin) as single agent for remission induction of previously untreated acute promyelocytic leukemia: a pilot study of the Italian cooperative group GIMEMA. Eur J Haematol 1990 Apr;44(4):257-60
  7. Bastholt L; Dalmark M; Jakobsen A; Gadeberg CC; and others Oral idarubicin in the treatment of advanced breast cancer. Acta Oncol 1989;28(6):893-7
  8. Bastholt L; Dalmark M; Jakobsen A: Gadeberg CC; and others Weekly oral idarubicin in postmenopausal women with advanced breast cancer. A phase II study. Acta Oncol 1990;29(2): 143-6
  9. Berman E; Heller G; Santorsa J; McKenzie S; and others Results of a randomized trial comparing idarubicin and cytosine arabinoside with daunorubicin and cytosine arabinoside in adult patients with newly diagnosed acute myelogenous leukemia. Blood 1991 Apr 15;77(8):1666-74
  10. Berman E; Raymond V; Daghestani A; Arlin ZA; and others 4-demethoxydaunorubicin (idarubicin) in combination with l-beta-D-arabinofuranosylcytosine in the treatment of relapsed or refractory acute leukemia. Cancer Res 1989 Jan 15;49(2):477-81
  11. Berman E; Raymond V; Gee T; Kempin SJ; and others Idarubicin in acute leukemia: results of studies at Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center. Semin Oncol 1989 Feb; 16(1 Suppl 2):30-4
  12. Berman E; Raymond V; Gee TS; Kempin SJ; and others Idarubicin in acute leukemia: results of US trials. Bone Marrow Transplant 1989 Jan;4 Suppl 1:49
  13. Berrebi A; Polliack A Oral idarubicin in elderly acute leukemia and refractory anemia with excess of blasts. Hamatol Bluttransfus 1990;33:342-5
  14. Bertelli G; Amoroso D; Pronzato P; Rosso R Idarubicin: an evaluation of cardiac toxicity in 77 patients with solid tumors. Anticancer Res 1988 Jul-Aug; 8(4):645-6
  15. Carella AM; Carlier P; Pungolino E; Resegotti L; and others Idarubicin in combination with intermediate-dose cytarabine and VP-16 in the treatment of refractory or rapidly relapsed patients with acute myeloid leukemia. The GIMEMA Cooperative Group. Leukemia 1993 Feb;7(2): 196-9
  16. Carella AM; Gaozzo E; Raffo MR; Carlier P; and others Therapy of acute phase chronic myelogenous leukemia with intensive chemotherapy, blood cell autotransplant and cyclosporine A. Leukemia 1991 Jun;5(6):517-21
  17. Carella AM; Pungolino E; Piatti G; Gaozza E; and others Idarubicin in combination with intermediate-dose cytarabine in the treatment of refractory or relapsed acute leukemias. Eur J Haematol 1989 Oct;43(4):309-13
  18. Carella AM; Pungolino E; Piatti G; Giordano D; and others Idarubicin in combination with etoposide and cytarabine in adult acute non-lymphoblastic leukaemia (ANLL). Bone Marrow Transplant 1989 Jan;4 Suppl 1:50-1
  19. Case DC Jr; Gerber MC; Gams RA; Crawford J; and others Phase II study of intravenous idarubicin in unfavorable non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Cancer Res 1992 Jul 15;52(14):3871-4
  20. Case DC Jr; Hayes DM; Gerber M; Gams R; and others Phase II study of oral idarubicin in favorable histology non-hodgkin's lymphoma. Cancer Res 1990 Nov 1;50(21):6833-5
  21. Cassileth PA; Andersen JW; Bennett JM; Harrington DP; and others Escalating the intensity of post-remission therapy improves the outcome in acute myeloid leukemia: the ECOG experience. The Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group. Leukemia 1992;6 Suppl 2:116-9
  22. Chevallier B; Monnier A; Metz R; Namer M; and others Phase II study of oral idarubicin in elderly patients with advanced breast cancer. Am J Clin Oncol 1990 Oct;13(5):436-9
  23. Chisesi T; Capnist G; de Dominicis E; Dini E A phase II study of idarubicin (4-demethexydaunorubicin) in advanced myeloma. Eur J Cancer Clin Oncol 1988 Apr;24(4):681-4
  24. Cofrancesco E; Pogliani E; Salvatore M; Moreo G; and others Alpha-2 antiplasmin in acute nonlymphoblastic leukemia. Acta Haematol 1989;81 (3): 122-5
  25. De Lena M; Brandi M; Bozzi D; Calabrese P; Romito S 4-Demethoxydaunorubicin administered orally in advanced breast cancer. A phase II study. Tumori 1988 Feb 29;74(1):65-70
  26. Errante D; Sorio R; Zagonel V; Carbone A; and others A phase II study of oral idarubicin (4-demethoxidaunorubicin) in previously untreated elderly patients with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Am J Clin Oncol 1991 Jun;14(3):243-5
  27. Erttmann R; Bode U; Erb N; Forcadell de Dios P; and others [Antineoplastic effectiveness and toxicity of idarubicin (4-demethoxydaunorubicin) in recurrent acute leukemias in childhood] Klin Padiatr 1988 May-Jun; 200(3):200-4
  28. EKinger DS; Finkelstein DM; Donehower RC; Chang AY; and others Phase II study of N-methylformamide, spirogermanium, and 4-demethoxydaunorubicin in the treatment of non-small cell lung cancer (EST 3583): an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group study. Med Pediatr Oncol 1989;17(3):197-201
  29. Feig SA; Krailo MD; Harris RE; Baum E; and others Determination of the maximum tolerated dose of idarubicin when used in a combination chemotherapy program of reinduction of childhood ALL at first marrow relapse and a preliminary assessment of toxicity compared to that of daunorubicin: a report from the Children's Cancer Study Group. Med Pediatr Oncol 1992;20(2): 124-9
  30. Feldman EJ; Arlin ZA; Ahmed T; Mittelman A; and others Acute promyelocytic leukemia: a 5-year experience with new antileukemic agents and a new approach to preventing fatal hemorrhage. Acta Haematol 1989;82(3): 117-21
  31. Gillies H; Liang R; Rogers H; Harper P; and others Phase II trial of idarubicin in patients with advanced lymphoma. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol 1988;21 (3):261-4
  32. Harousseau JL; Pignon B; Dufour P; Ifrah N; and others Autologous bone marrow transplantation vs intensive chemotherapy in first complete remission; interim results of GOELAM study in AML. Leukemia 1992;6 Suppl 2: 120-3
  33. Harousseau JL; Reiffers J; Hurteloup P; Milpied N; and others Treatment of relapsed acute myeloid leukemia with idarubicin and intermediate-dose cytarabine. J Clin Oncol 1989 Jan;7(1):45-9
  34. Harousseau JL; Rigal-Huguet F; Hurteloup P; Guy H; and others Treatment of acute myeloid leukemia in elderly patients with oral idarubicin as a single agent. Eur J Haematol 1989 Feb;42(2): 182-5
  35. Harvengt C Clarithromycin-idarubicin. Acta Clin Belg 1991 ;46(6):413-7
  36. Helg C; Chapuis B; Grob JP; Pugin P [Acute myeloid leukemia with poor prognosis: treatment with oral 4-demethoxydaunorubicin (idarubicin) and low-dose cytarabine via subcutaneous route] Schweiz Med Wochenschr 1990 Apr 14; 120(15):548-52
  37. Ho AD; Brado B; Haas R; Hunstein W Etoposide in acute leukemia. Past experience and future perspectives. Cancer 1991 Jan 1;67(1 Suppl):281-4
  38. Hurteloup P; Armand JP; Schneider M; Bastit P; and others Phase II trial of idarubicin (4-demethoxydaunorubicin) in advanced breast cancer. The Clinical Screening Group of the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer. Eur J Cancer Clin Oncol 1989 Mar;25(3):423-8
  39. Kolaric K; Mechl Z Combination of idarubicin and cyclophosphamide administered orally in untreated postmenopausal breast cancer patients.
  40. Kolaric K; Potrebica V; Vukas D; Mechl Z; Sopkova B Combination chemotherapy with 5-fluorouracil, oral idarubicin, and cyclophosphamide (FIC) in metastatic breast cancer—an open phase II study. J Cancer Res Clin Oncol 1988; 114(3):301-5
  41. Krarup-Hansen A; Andersen E; Elbaek K; Rasmussen SN; Dalmark M Phase I study of 4-demethoxydaunorubicin by oral route in patients with advanced cancer. Acta Oncol 1988;27(5):521-5
  42. Lambertenghi-Deliliers G; Annaloro C; Cortelezzi A; Cortellaro M; and others Idarubicin plus cytarabine as first-line treatment of acute nonlymphoblastic leukemia. Semin Oncol 1989 Feb;16(1 Suppl 2):16-20
  43. Lambertenghi-Deliliers G; Annaloro C; Cortellaro M; Pozzoli E; and others Idarubicin in blastic crisis of chronic myelogenous leukemia. Haematologica 1991 Sep-Oct;76(5):406-8
  44. Leone G; Pagano L; Marra R; Di Pietro N; and others Idarubicin combined with intermediate-dose cytosine arabinoside in the treatment of refractory acute leukemia. Haematologica 1989 Jan-Feb;74(1):57-61
  45. Lobo PJ; Powles RL; Hanrahan A; Reynold DK Acute myeloblastic leukaemia—a model for assessing value for money for new treatment programmes. BMJ 1991 Feb 9;302(6772):323-6
  46. Lopez M; Contegiacomo A; Vici P; Dello Ioio C; and others A prospective randomized trial of doxorubicin versus idarubicin in the treatment of advanced breast cancer. Cancer 1989 Dec 15;64(12):2431-6
  47. Lopez M; Vici P; Carpano S; Natali M; and others. Combination chemo- therapy with oral idarubicin and cyclophosphamide for metastatic breast cancer. J Cancer Res Clin Oncol 1991 ;117(1):61-4
  48. Lowenthal RM; Lambertenghi-Deliliers G Oral idarubicin as treatment for advanced myelodysplastic syndrome. Haematologica 1991 Sep-Oct; 76(5):398-401
  49. MacCormick R; Hirsch G; Gupta S; Shannon P; Rotstein L A phase II study of idarubicin in the treatment of measurable gastric cancer. Cancer 1991 Jun 15; 67(12):2988-9
  50. Madsen EL; Bastholt L; Bertelsen K; Rose C; and others Weekly oral idarubicin in advanced prostatic cancer. A phase II study. Acta Oncol 1992;31(3):337-40
  51. Malik ST; Tucker J; Rohatiner AZ; Brace W; Lister TA Oral idarubicin in the treatment of acute myelogenous leukaemia and the blast phase of chronic myeloid leukaemia. Hematol Oncol 1989 Nov-Dec;7(6):423-7
  52. Mandelli F; Annino L; Avvisati G; Giona F; and others Idarubicin in acute leukaemia. GIMEMA Group. Bone Marrow Transplant 1989 Dec;4 Suppl 3: 49-52
  53. Mandelli F; Petti MC; Ardia A; Di Pietro N; and others A randomized clinical trial comparing idarubicin and cytarabine to daunorubicin and cytarabine in the treatment of acute nonlymphoid leukaemia. A multicentric study from the Italian Cooperative Group GIMEMA. Eur J Cancer l99l ;27(6):750-5
  54. Martoni A; Piana E; Guaraldi M; Cilenti G; and others Comparative phase II study of idarubicin versus doxorubicin in advanced breast cancer. Oncology 1990;47(5):427-32
  55. Pagano L; Sica S; Marra R; Voso MT; and others Oral idarubicin plus cytosine arabinoside in the treatment of acute non lymphoblastic leukemia in elderly patients. Haematologica 1991 Nov-Dec;76(6):517-8
  56. Pashko S; Jacobs J; Santorsa J The cost-effectiveness of idarubicin/cytosine arabinoside versus daunorubicin/cytosine arabinoside in the treatment of adults with acute myeloid leukemia. Clin Ther 1991 May-Jun;13(3):353-60
  57. Petti MC; Mandelli F Idarubicin in acute leukemias: experience of the Italian Cooperative Group GIMEMA. Semin Oncol 1989 Feb;16(1 Suppl 2):10-5
  58. Possinger K; Wagner H; Worst P; Queisser W; and others Oral administration of idarubicin as first line cytostatic therapy in patients with metastasized breast cancer and favourable prognosis. A trial of the phase II study group of the Association for Medical Oncology of the German Cancer Society. Onkologie 1991 Feb;14(1):31-4
  59. Presgrave P; Woods R; Dalley D; Bell D; Levi J A phase II trial of oral 4'demethoxydaunorubicin in advanced colorectal carcinoma. Am J Clin Oncol 1988 Oct; 11 (5):564-5
  60. Presgrave P; Woods R; Kefford R; Bell D; and others A phase II trial of oral 4'demethoxydaunorubicin (DMDR) in inoperable non small cell lung cancer. Invest New Drugs 1988 Sep;6(3):219-21
  61. Pronzato P; Bertelli G; Amoroso D; Pennucci C; and others Oral chemotherapy with idarubicin plus cyclophosphamide in advanced breast cancer. Chemotherapy 1991;37(6):449-53
  62. Pui CH; de Graaf SS; Dow LW; Rodman JH; and others Phase I clinical trial of orally administered 4-demethoxydaunorubicin (idarubicin) with pharmacokinetic and in vitro drug sensitivity testing in children with refractory leukemia. Cancer Res 1988 Sep 15;48(18):5348-52
  63. Resegotti L Treatment of acute non-lymphoid leukemia (ANLL) in elderly patients. The GIMEMA experience. Leukemia 1992;6 Suppl 2:72-5
  64. Runtu T; Elonen E Etoposide, 6-thioguanine and idarubicin, an oral combination regimen (ETI) for the induction treatment of acute leukemia. Hematol Oncol 1991 Mar-Apr;9(2):87-92
  65. Sica S; Di Mario A; Pagano L; Etuk B; and others Aggressive chemotherapy for acute leukemia relapsed after bone marrow transplantation: a second chance? Acta Haematol 1992;87(4): 173-5
  66. Smith DB; Howell A A phase II trial of oral idarubicin plus dibromodulcitol in advanced breast cancer. Eur J Cancer Clin Oncol 1989 Jan;25(1): 141-3
  67. Stasi R; Venditti A; del Poeta G; Tribalto M; and others High interleukin-6 plasma levels in acute promyelocytic leukemia. Ann Hematol 1992 Jun;64(6):303-4
  68. Steward WP; Smith DB; Crowther D Weekly oral 4-demethoxydaunorubicin in patients with relapsed low grade non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Ann Oncol 1991 Sep;2(8):605-6
  69. Stewart DJ; Verma S; Maroun JA; Robillard L; and others Phase I study of idarubicin administered orally on a daily x 3 schedule. Invest New Drugs 1990 Aug;8(3):275-81
  70. Stuart NS; Cullen MH; Priestman TJ; Blackledge GR; Tyrrell CJ A phase II study of oral idarubicin (4-demethoxydaunorubicin) in advanced breast cancer. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol 1988;21(4):351-4
  71. Testi AM; Moleti ML; Giona F; Iori AP; and others Treatment of primary refractory or relapsed acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) in children. Ann Oncol 1992 Nov;3(9):765-7
  72. Turowski RC; Durthaler JM Visual compatibility of idarubicin hydrochloride with selected drugs during simulated Y-site injection. Am J Hosp Pharm 1991 Oct;48(10):2181-4
  73. Umsawasdi T; Holoye PY; Jeffries D; Carr DT Phase II study of idarubicin in extensive-disease non-small-cell lung cancer. Am J Clin Oncol 1989 Dec; 12(6):519-20
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  78. Vorobiof DA; Falkson G; Iturralde MP Radionuclide angiographic monitoring in patients treated with potentially cardiotoxic cytostatic drugs. S Afr Med J 1988 Sep 3;74(5):213-6
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  80. Wiernik PH; Case DC Jr; Periman PO; Arlin ZA; and others A multicenter trial of cytarabine plus idarubicin or daunorubicin as induction therapy for adult nonlymphocytic leukemia. Semin Oncol 1989 Feb;16(1 Suppl 2):25-9
  81. Williams CJ A phase II study of oral idarubicin in advanced recurrent or refractory ovarian carcinoma. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol 1990;25(4):304-5 18


  1. Arlin ZA Idarubicin in acute leukemia: an effective new therapy for the future. Semin Oncol 1989 Feb;16(1 Suppl 2):35-6
  2. Berman E New drugs in acute myelogenous leukemia: a review. J Clin Pharmacol 1992 Apr;32(4):296-309
  3. Berman E; Weiss M; Kempin S; Gee T; and others Intensive therapy for adult acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Semin Hematol 1991 Jul;28(3 Suppl 4):72-5
  4. Betcher DL; Burnham N Idarubicin. J Pediatr Oncol Nurs 1990 Jul;7(3): 117-20
  5. Carella AM High-risk acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL): is there an alternative approach for increasing the number of cures? Haematologica 1992 JulAug;77(4):348-51
  6. Carella AM; Berman E; Maraone MP; Ganzina F Idarubicin in the treatment of acute leukemias. An overview of preclinical and clinical studies. Haematologica 1990 Mar-Apr;75(2): 159-69
  7. Cersosimo RJ Idarubicin: an anthracycline antineoplastic agent. Clin Pharm 1992 Feb;11(2):152-67
  8. Fields SM; Koeller JM Idarubicin: a second-generation anthracycline. DICP 1991 May;25(5):505-17
  9. Foon KA; Gale RP Therapy of acute myelogenous leukemia. Blood Rev 1992 Mar;6(1): 15-25
  10. Galassi A The next generation: new chemotherapy agents for the 1990s. Semin Oncol Nurs 1992 May;8(2):83-94
  11. Hollingshead LM; Faulds D Idarubicin. A review of its pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic properties, and therapeutic potential in the chemotherapy of cancer. Drugs 1991 Oct;42(4):690-719
  12. Idarubicin. Med Lett Drugs Ther 1991 Sept 6;33(852):84-5
  13. Idarubicin: a new presence in leukemias. Satellite symposium. Milan, August 1988. Proceedings. Semin Oncol 1989 Feb;16(1 Suppl 2):1-36
  14. [Idarubicin—new aspects of the therapy of acute leukemias. Satellite symposium of the International Symposium on Acute Leukemias. Munster, 24 February 1991] Klin Wochenschr 1991;69 Suppl 9:1-4
  15. Jehn U; Heinemann V New drugs in the treatment of acute and chronic leukemia with some emphasis on m-AMSA. Anticancer Res 1991 MarApr;11(2):705-11
  16. Keating MJ; Estey E; Kantarjian H; Plunkett W; and others Evolution of treatment for acute myelogenous leukemia and myelodysplastic syndrome at M.D. Anderson Cancer Center 1985-1991. Leukemia 1992;6 Suppl 2:78-80
  17. Mouridsen HT New cytotoxic drugs in treatment of breast cancer. Acta Oncol 1990;29(3):343-7
  18. Muggia FM; Green MD New anthracycline antitumor antibiotics. Crit Rev Oncol Hematol 1991;11(1):43-64 Ogawa M; Ariyoshi Y [New anthracyclines] Gan To Kagaku Ryoho
  19. Rowinsky EK Current developments in antitumor antibiotics, epipodophyllotoxins, and vinca alkaloids. Curr Opin Oncol 1991 Dec;3(6): 1060-9
  20. Rubens RD Treatment of metastatic breast cancer and its complications. Curr OpinOncol 1991 Dec;3(6): 1029-34
  21. Schiffer CA; Lee EJ Approaches to the therapy of relapsed acute myeloid leukemia. Oncology (Williston Park) 1989 Aug;3(8):23-7; discussion 28
  22. Schiller G Treatment of resistant acute myeloid leukemia. Blood Rev 1991 Dec;5(4):220-6
  23. Sinha BK; Politi PM Anthracyclines. Cancer Chemother Biol Response Modif 1990; 11 :45-57 Vogler WR Strategies in the treatment of acute myelogenous leukemia. Leuk Res 1992Dec;16(12):1143-53
  24. Weiss GR; Arteaga CL; Brown TD; Craig JB; and others New anticancer agents. Cancer Chemother Biol Response Modif 1988;10:85-116
  25. Weiss RB The anthracyclines: will we ever find a better doxorubicin? Semin Oncol 1992 Dec; 19(6):670-86
  26. Wiernik PH New agents in the treatment of acute myeloid leukemia. Semin Hematol 1991 Jul;28(3 Suppl 4):95-8


  1. Anderson RW; Dozier N Idarubicin hydrochloride dosing guidelines might cause confusion [letter] Am J Hosp Pharm 1991 Jan;48(1):72
  2. Capnist G; Chisesi T Etoposide plus idarubicin and prednisone in refractory or relapsed multiple myeloma. A phase II study [letter] Haematologica 1988 SepOct;73(5):431-2
  3. Chan-Lam D; Copplestone JA; Prentice A; Price R; and others Idarubicin cardiotoxicity in acute myeloid leukaemia [letter; comment] Lancet 1992 July 18;340(8812): 185-6
  4. Cavanna L; Di Stasi M; Fornari F; Civardi G; and others Idarubicin plus attenuated high-dose cytosine arabinoside in the treatment of relapsed and refractory acute leukemia [letter] EurJ Haematol 1990 Sep;45(3):180-1
  5. Franchi F; Seminara P; Codacci-Pisanelli G; Bianco P Is therapy with cytostatics obsolete in hairy-cell leukemia? [letter] Int J Clin Lab Res 1992;22(2): 122-3
  6. Keldsen N; Karle H; Hansen NE; Nissen NI Oral idarubicin in elderly patients with acute myeloid leukemia [letter] Eur J Haematol 1990
  7. Jul;45(1):60 177. Lazzarino M; Morra E; Alessandrino EP; Merante S; and others Treatment of relapsed and refractory acute myeloid leukemia in adults. Bone Marrow Transplant 1989 Jan;4 Suppl 1: 121-3
  8. Levene NA; Berrebi A Systemic lupus erythematosus associated with refractory anemia with excess of blasts [letter] Eur J Haematol 1990 Jan;44(1):79-80
  9. Piccart MJ; de Valeriola D; Tomiak E Anthracyclines active via the oral route: luxury or necessity? [editorial; comment] Ann Oncol 1992 Mar;3(3):181-2
  10. Reiffers J; Huguet F; Stoppa AM; Michallet M; Hurteloup P Intensive induction chemotherapy in elderly patients. The BGMT Group [letter] Br J Haematol 1992 Sep;82(1):175-6

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