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AML Atlas, Facts & Treatment

AML Atlas, Facts & Trends: M2

AML, one of the most common types of leukemia, is diagnosed in approximately 6,800 adults each year. AML occurs more often in men and is usually diagnosed in individuals over 50, although it can occur at any age.[6]

AML with granulocytic dysplasia (M2)

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Myeloblasts with azurophil granules and abnormal maturing granulocytes, "pseudo Pelger cells."

Three signals shown due to trisomy 8 (+8), commonly seen in most types of AML. AML with granulocytic dysplasia (M2)

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"Each of these [US] studies analyzed the number of patients who had persistent blasts present after either idarubicin or daunorubicin induction, and in each of the three studies more patients had primary refractory disease after treatment with daunorubicin than after treatment with idarubicin."[11]

AML with differentiation (M2)

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Myeloblasts with some maturation beyond the promyelocyte; rare thin Auer rods present.

Translocation t(8;21) (q22;q22), common to M2, involves ETO and AML1 genes, respectively. Arrows show breakpoints in chromosomes 8 and 21. This translocation is associated with a favorable prognosis.

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"It is, therefore, of interest that patients treated with [IDAMYCIN and Ara-C] had a significantly greater response duration and survival compared with patients treated with [daunorubicin and Ara-C].[*]

AML M2 basophil

In addition, there was a trend toward a greater CR rate and a significantly greater likelihood of achieving CR with one induction course of [IDAMYCIN and Ara-C]."[13]
-P.H. Wiernik, Blood, 1992

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Myeloblasts with increased numbers of basophils

Translocation t(6;9)(p22.2;q34) involves DEK and CAN genes, respectively, and often associated with bone marrow basophilia. Arrows point to breakpoints in chromosomes 6 and 9.

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"Over the next decade, as we begin to individualize therapy based on disease and patient characteristics, AML in adults may enter the ranks of highly curable malignancies along with testicular cancer, Hodgkin's disease, and childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia."[14]
-R.B. Geller, Leukemia, 1992

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Myeloblasts with maturation to myelocytes. Thin Auer rods are prominent.

Translocation t(8;21)(q22;q22) shown with chromosome painting that utilizes probes specific for whole chromosomes 8 (green) and 21 (pink). The derivative chromosomes are shown as der8 and der21. Composition of the chromosomes is evident through the presence of the colors.

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