Re: [MOL] Learning about cells and immunity.... [00525] Medicine On Line


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Re: [MOL] Learning about cells and immunity....



Hi Lillian;
   I talked to research nurse today and the drug is spelled
Lometrexol. It is going into Phase 2 trials. We see the Dr.
in Tucson next Tuesday and they draw blood and see how my
husbands immune system and liver is holding up and then he
waits for 4 wks. for the Thalidimide to wear off and then he
starts Lometrexol. He has to take folic acid for 2wks. prior
to infusion which is a I.V. push every 3 wks. They eval.
with catscans every 6wks. if there is no new cancer then he
continues on with the trtmt. Side effects are minimual,
mostly nausea. The drug is a garft enhibitor. That's all I
know for now. It is specially for sarcoma's. We are glad it
is going into 2nd phase, 1st phases are little scary.
Atleast they know what the human doseage is. It is getting
late here, getting past my bedtime. See what tomorrow
brings.........your friend, Beav

Lillian wrote:

>   Cell mediated immunity...putting the pieces together
>
> We continue our exploration of the role of the immune
> system in protecting us from cancer. Before getting into
> cancer specifically, we are discussing how the immune
> system works. We are concentrating on cell-mediated
> immunity as this appears to be the most important
> component of the immune system in fighting cancer. Please
> take time to review Part 1 and 2.
>
> When all is well, this is how our immune system works. It
> all starts with a white blood cell called a macrophage
> (big eater). The macrophage meets a foreign invader and
> gobbles it up and then presents the antigens (pieces of
> the invader) on its cell surface. Helper T cells read this
> information (known as MHC 2 ) and send out signals through
> special messengers to activate other parts of the immune
> system. These chemical messengers are known as cytokines
> and include interleukins, interferons and tumor necrosis
> factors. These messengers then activate other parts of the
> immune system, including Killer T cells (also known as
> cytotoxic T-Cells). The entire "orchestra" of the immune
> system begins to be activated in a controlled and focused
> fashion. When all goes well, invaders, and abnormal cells
> are eliminated without our conscious knowledge of the
> process. When the situation is under control, another
> T-Cell known as a suppressor T-Cell instructs the immune
> system to return to a resting state. It really is an
> amazing thing.
>
> In the case of cancer, another type of immune cell, known
> as a Natural Killer Cell, plays a very important role.
> Unlike T cells and B cells, natural killer cells do not
> need to see antigens in order to be called into action.
> Natural killer cell function is extremely important in
> detecting and killing virally infected cells as well as
> cancer cells. Letís explore how this works.
>
> Keep in mind that B cells and T cells require two things
> in order to be galvanized into action. First they need to
> have had a previous exposure to the antigen (parts of the
> invader). Secondly, they must be called into action by
> helper T cells. Natural killer cells require neither of
> these two factors. Instead, natural killer cells are
> continually prowling around our tissues examining the
> contents of cells. One way that NK cells examine the
> contents of cells is by looking at the major
> histocompatibility complex (MHC 1) mentioned in previous
> installments of this series. Just as a refresher the MHC 1
> complex says "hey, I am self" "donít destroy me". When the
> MHC 1 brings up self and something "non-self" such as a
> viral particle, or malignancy it signals trouble.
> Likewise, some virally infected or cancer cells try to
> hide from the immune system by not presenting MHC 1 at
> all. This doesnít fool the natural killer cell. In fact
> the natural killer cell really springs into action when it
> sees a low or non-existent expression of MHC. This is
> quite an oversimplification but captures the essence of
> what is happening.
>
> The theory that the immune system is constantly surveying
> for malignancies, and destroying them when found is known
> as the immune surveillance theory. What this theory says,
> in practical terms, is that we all have cancer cells from
> time to time, but they are identified and destroyed by the
> immune system. This theory was first proposed by Ehrlich
> in 1909. The theory is supported by the following
> observations (Boik, 1996)
>
>      Children with immunodeficiency have increased rated
>      of lymphoma, leukemia and Hodgkinís disease.
>
>      High rates of Kaposiís Sarcoma and lymphoma among HIV
>      patients.
>
>      Patients on immunosuppressive drugs following
>      transplants have 3 fold increases of certain cancers.
>
>      Cancer incidence increases dramatically over time
>      when patients are on immunosuppressive medications.
>      In one study of heart transplant patients, cancer
>      rates were 3 times higher after 1 year, and 26 times
>      higher after 5 years.
>
> In keeping with the immune surveillance theory, most
> complementary physicians utilize natural products that
> improve the immune system in order to prevent or treat
> cancers. Natural products that have significant effects on
> various components of the immune system include medicinal
> mushrooms, beta glucans, lactoferrin, and others.
> ImmuneOption, available on this site contains many of
> these immune enhancers.
>
> Boik, J 1996. Cancer and Natural Medicine. Princeton
> Minnesota: Oregon Medical Press
>
> -----------------------------------------------------------
>
> [Image]
> Prostate Cancer: Symptoms and Diagnosis
> by: by: Michael Guthrie, R. Ph.
>
> Prostate cancer is the most common type of cancer in men
> in the United States (other than skin cancer). Like any
> cancer, prostate cancer involves the abnormal and
> uncontrolled growth of cells.
>
> Benign porstatic hyperplasia (BPH) is a condition
> affecting the prostate that also involves abnormal cell
> growth, but this condition is not cancerous for this
> reason: the cells do not invade nearby tissues or spread
> to other parts of the body (metastasis). So, just because
> one has an enlarged prostate does not mean cancer. In fact
> BPH affects by: by: Michael Guthrie, R. Ph.half the men
> between 60 and 70 and perhaps 90 percent of men between
> the ages of 70 and 90. Symptoms include difficulty in
> urination, and incomplete emptying of the bladder. When
> severe enough, surgery is performed to "open up" the lumen
> in the prostate so that urine flows freely.
>
>
> What is the prostate gland? The prostate gland is a male
> sex gland, about the size of a walnut. It produces part of
> the fluid that forms semen. The urethra (the tube running
> from the kidney to the opening of the penis) passes
> through the prostate gland.
>
> Symptoms of bladder cancer are similar to BPH, and are
> listed by the National Cancer Institute as the following.
> Keep in mind that the following does not indicate a
> diagnosis of cancer. It indicates the need for further
> tests.
>
>
>
>      A need to urinate frequently, especially at night
>
>      Difficulty starting urination or holding back urine
>
>      Inability to urinate
>
>      Weak or interrupted flow of urine
>
>      Painful ejaculation
>
>      Blood in urine or semen
>
>      Frequent pain or stiffness in the lower back, hips,
>      or upper thighs.
>
> When a patient presents with the above symptoms, the
> urologist (a doctor who specializes in the urinary tract,
> and the reproductive organs) will perform other tests,
> including digital rectal exam, urine tests, and blood
> tests including PSA (prostate-specific anigen) and PAP
> (prostatic acid phosphatase). If these tests are
> suspicious, the doctor may then order further tests such
> as ultrasound and cystoscopy (inserting a scope into the
> urethra which allows a doctor to visually inspect the
> urethra and bladder). Finally, if warranted, the doctor
> may perform a biopsy (a tissue sample of the prostate
> gland). It is usually the biopsy report that is used to
> make a definitive diagnosis of cancer. The important thing
> to keep in mind is that many of the symptoms of prostate
> cancer may be less serious diseases. However, it is vital
> to be examined if symptoms are present. As with any
> cancer, an early diagnosis has direct and significant
> effect on chances of survival.
>
> Current research indicates that there may be a familial
> predisposition for cancer, but further research is needed.
> Prostate cancer IS NOT contagious. Diet, especially a diet
> high in saturated fat does appear to predispose to
> prostate cancer. As with most cancers, diets high in a
> wide variety of fruits and vegetables and low in saturated
> fats help in prevention.
>
> Numerous studies have looked at the herbal product Saw
> Palmetto as a possible preventative supplement. This
> research is promising and continues. The respected
> Pharmacistís Letter Natural Medicines Comprehensive
> Database has this to say about Saw Palmetto.
>
> LIKELY EFFECTIVE ...when used orally for reducing the
> symptoms of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH)
> (2,4,7,2732,5094). Multiple clinical studies lasting up to
> 48 weeks have shown that saw palmetto significantly
> reduces urinary tract symptoms such as nocturia, peak and
> mean urine flow, and residual urine volume in patients
> with BPH (2732). Two studies indicate that saw palmetto is
> possibly comparable to finasteride (Proscar) in efficacy;
> however, saw palmetto might be better-tolerated
> (2732,6424). Improvement can take up to 2 months of
> treatment (2732). Clinical studies have used a
> liposterolic extract of saw palmetto berry containing
> 80-90% fatty acids.  We invite you to take a look at our
> Album.
> www.angelfire.com/sc/molangels/index.html   ( Very
> informational, good tips, Molers pictures, art work and
> much more....



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