Dear Steve, I just wanted to get this information off to you before the end of today. Please keep your faith and hope up. I'll be praying for you and your Dad. Hope this information helps in some way. God Bless. John a two year cancer survivor Steve Gibson wrote: > > To everyone, > > This is a long shot..... > > My Dad has just had an operation to remove a re-occurence of bowel cancer > and also had a little of his bladder out, too. > He's having a rough time in recovery right now. He's running a > temperature and is a little deluded. (Why am I here? Where's the cat? > Fetch my socks stuff. It's kind of funny but not if you can imagine) He > also has a swollen tummy and his breathing is, as a consequence I think, > quickened. The med staff here say that his grasp on reality has been > affected by toxins from his stomach and have advised that we just have > wait for the stomach to drain and he'll be much better when he's cleaned > out. > > They're not being very detailed with us. Has anyone on this list seen > this kind of thing before? > > Thanks to anyone that can help here. > > Steve > London, England.Title: Rectal cancer
Rectal cancer PDQ Statement for Health Professionals
CancerNet from the National Cancer Institute
Information from PDQ for Patients
What is PDQ?
PDQ is a computer system that gives up-to-date information on cancer and its prevention, detection, treatment, and supportive care. It is a service of the National Cancer Institute (NCI) for people with cancer and their families and for doctors, nurses, and other health care professionals.
To ensure that it remains current, the information in PDQ is reviewed and updated each month by experts in the fields of cancer treatment, prevention, screening, and supportive care. PDQ also provides information about research on new treatments (clinical trials), doctors who treat cancer, and hospitals with cancer programs. The treatment information in this summary is based on information in the PDQ summary for health professionals on this cancer.
How to use PDQ
Before you start treatment, you also may want to think about taking part in a clinical trial. PDQ can be used to learn more about these trials. A clinical trial is a research study that attempts to improve current treatments or finds information on new treatments for patients with cancer. Clinical trials are based on past studies and information discovered in the laboratory. Each trial answers certain scientific questions in order to find new and better ways to help patients with cancer. Information is collected about new treatments, their risks, and how well they do or do not work. When clinical trials show that a new treatment is better than the treatment currently used as "standard" treatment, the new treatment may become the standard treatment. Listings of current clinical trials are available on PDQ. Many cancer doctors who take part in clinical trials are listed in PDQ.
To learn more about cancer and how it is treated, or to learn more about clinical trials for your kind of cancer,
PDQ is updated whenever there is new information. Check with the Cancer Information Service to be sure that you have the most up-to-date information.
What is cancer of the rectum?
Cancer of the rectum, a common form of cancer, is a disease in which cancer (malignant) cells are found in the tissues of the rectum. The rectum is part of the body's digestive system. The digestive system is made up of the esophagus, stomach, and the small and large intestines. The last 6 feet of intestine is called the large bowel or colon. The last 8 to 10 inches of the colon is the rectum. The purpose of the digestive system is to remove nutrients, such as vitamins and minerals, from food and to store the waste until it passes out of the body.
A doctor should be seen if a person has a change in bowel habits or if there is any bleeding from the rectum.
A doctor will usually begin by giving the patient a rectal examination. In a rectal examination, the doctor places a gloved, greased finger into the rectum and gently feels for lumps. The doctor may then check material collected from the rectum to see if there is any blood in it.
The doctor may want to look inside the rectum and lower colon with a special instrument called a sigmoidoscope or proctosigmoidoscope. This examination, called a proctoscopy or procto examination, finds about half of all colon and rectal cancers. The doctor may also want to look inside the rectum and the entire colon (colonoscopy) with a special tool called a colonoscope. Both examinations are done in a doctor's office. Also, for both tests, patients may feel some pressure usually with no pain.
If tissue that is not normal is found, the doctor will need to cut out a small piece and look at it under the microscope to see if there are any cancer cells. This is called a biopsy. Biopsies are usually done during the proctoscopy or colonoscopy in a doctor's office.
The doctor may also perform a test called an endorectal ultrasound. This test uses sound from a probe inserted into the rectum to determine how large the tumor is, and whether it has spread.
Screening tests (such as the rectal examination, proctoscopy, and colonoscopy) may be done regularly in patients who are at higher risk to get cancer. These tests may be done in patients who are over age 50; who have a family history of cancer of the colon, rectum, or of the female organs; or who have a history of ulcerative colitis (ulcers in the lining of the large intestines).
Other tests are being developed. In patients with some forms of rectal and colon cancer, abnormal genes have been found. Genes are markers in cells associated with hereditary traits. Tests are being developed to determine who carries these abnormal genes long before cancer appears.
After treatment, blood tests (to measure amounts of carcinoembryonic antigen or CEA in the blood) and x-ray tests also may be done to see if the cancer has come back.
The prognosis (chance of recovery) and choice of treatment depend on the stage of the cancer (whether it is just in the inner lining of the rectum or if it has spread to other places) and the patient's general state of health.
Stages of cancer of the rectum
Once cancer of the rectum is found (diagnosed), more tests will be done to find out if cancer cells have spread to other parts of the body (staging). A doctor needs to know the stage of the disease to plan treatment. The following stages are used for cancer of the rectum:
Stage 0 or carcinoma in situ
Stage I cancer of the rectum is sometimes called Dukes A rectal cancer.
Stage II cancer of the rectum is sometimes called Dukes B rectal cancer.
Stage III cancer of the rectum is sometimes called Dukes C rectal cancer.
Stage IV cancer of the rectum is sometimes called Dukes D rectal cancer.
How cancer of the rectum is treated
There are treatments for all patients with cancer of the rectum. Three kinds of treatments are available: surgery (taking out the cancer), radiation therapy (using high-dose x-rays or other high-energy rays to kill cancer cells), and chemotherapy (using drugs to kill cancer cells).
Surgery is the most common treatment of all stages of cancer of the rectum.
A doctor may take out the cancer from the rectum using one of the following:
Chemotherapy is the use of drugs to kill cancer cells. Chemotherapy may be taken by pill, or it may be put into the body by inserting a needle into a vein. A patient may be given chemotherapy through a tube that will be left in the vein while a small pump provides constant treatment over a period of weeks. Chemotherapy is called a systemic treatment because the drug enters the bloodstream, travels through the body, and can kill cancer cells outside the rectum. If cancer has spread to the liver, a patient may be given chemotherapy directly into the artery going to the liver. Chemotherapy or other drugs may be given with radiation therapy to make cancer cells more sensitive to radiation (radiosensitizers).
If the doctor removes all the cancer that can be seen at the time of the operation, a patient may be given chemotherapy after surgery to kill any cancer cells that are left. Chemotherapy given after an operation to a person who has no cancer cells that can be seen is called adjuvant chemotherapy.
Biological treatment tries to get the body to fight cancer. It uses materials made by the body or made in a laboratory to boost, direct, or restore the body's natural defenses against disease. Biological treatment is sometimes called biological response modifier (BRM) therapy.
Treatment by stage
Standard treatments, that have been proven effective in past studies, may be received or participation in a clinical trial may be considered. Clinical trials are done to find better ways to treat cancer patients and are based on the most up-to-date information. Clinical trials are ongoing in most parts of the country for most stages of cancer of the rectum. To learn more about clinical trials, call the Cancer Information Service at 1-800-4-CANCER (1-800-422-6237)
TO LEARN MORE..... CALL 1-800-4-CANCER