[MOL] Glioblastoma multiforme responce [02865] Medicine On Line


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[MOL] Glioblastoma multiforme responce





Glioblastoma multiforme
                   Glioblastoma multiformes are tumors that grow very
quickly and have
                   cells that look very different from normal cells.
Glioblastoma multiforme is
                   also called grade IV astrocytoma.
Glioblastoma multiforme
                   Glioblastoma multiformes are tumors that grow very
quickly and have
                   cells that look very different from normal cells.
Glioblastoma multiforme is
                   also called grade IV astrocytoma.
What is adult brain tumor?

Adult brain tumor is a disease in which cancer (malignant) cells begin
to grow in the tissues of the
brain. The brain controls memory and learning, senses (hearing, sight,
smell, taste, and touch), and
emotion. It also controls other parts of the body, including muscles,
organs, and blood vessels.

This PDQ summary covers tumors that start in the brain (primary brain
tumors). Often cancer found
in the brain has started somewhere else in the body and has spread
(metastasized) to the brain. This
is called brain metastasis (see the PDQ patient information summary on
brain metastasis).

A doctor should be seen if the following symptoms appear: frequent
headaches, vomiting, or
difficulty walking or speaking.

If there are symptoms, a doctor may order a computed tomographic scan, a
special x-ray that uses a
computer to make a picture of the brain. A magnetic resonance imaging
scan, which uses magnetic
waves to make a picture of the brain, may also be done. Often surgery is
required to determine if
there is a brain tumor and to see what type of tumor it is.

The chance of recovery (prognosis) and choice of treatment depend on the
type of brain tumor and
the patient's general state of health.



STAGE EXPLANATION


Types of adult brain tumor

Once adult brain tumor is found, more tests will be done to determine
the type of tumor. A doctor
will also need to know how different the tumor cells are from the cells
that are near it, which is called
the histologic grade of the tumor. To plan treatment, the doctor needs
to know the type and grade of
brain tumor. The following types are used to group adult brain tumors.

Astrocytomas

Astrocytomas are tumors that start in brain cells called astrocytes.
There are different kinds of
astrocytomas, which are defined by how the cancer cells look under a
microscope.


Noninfiltrating astrocytoma

Noninfiltrating astrocytomas are tumors that grow slowly and usually do
not grow into the tissues
around them.


Well-differentiated mildly and moderately anaplastic astrocytoma

Well-differentiated mildly and moderately anaplastic astrocytomas are
slow growing, but grow more
quickly than noninfiltrating astrocytomas. They start to grow into other
tissues around them.


Anaplastic astrocytoma

Anaplastic astrocytomas have cells that look very different from normal
cells and that grow more
rapidly.


Glioblastoma multiforme

Glioblastoma multiformes are tumors that grow very quickly and have
cells that look very different
from normal cells. Glioblastoma multiforme is also called grade IV
astrocytoma.

Brain Stem Gliomas

Brain stem gliomas are tumors located in the bottom part of the brain
that connects to the spinal cord
(the brain stem).

Cerebellar Astrocytoma

Cerebellar astrocytoma occurs in the area of the brain called the
cerebellum, which is just above the
back of the neck. Cerebellar astrocytomas usually grow slowly and do not
usually spread from
where they began to other parts of the brain or body.

Ependymal Tumors

Ependymal tumors are tumors that begin in the ependyma, the cells that
line the passageways in the
brain where special fluid that protects the brain and spinal cord
(called cerebrospinal fluid) is made
and stored. There are different kinds of ependymal tumors, which are
defined by how the cells look
under a microscope.


Well-differentiated ependymoma

Well-differentiated ependymomas have cells that look very much like
normal cells and grow quite
slowly.


Anaplastic ependymoma

Anaplastic ependymomas are ependymal tumors that do not look like normal
cells and grow more
quickly than well-differentiated ependymal tumors.


Ependymoblastoma

Ependymoblastomas are rare cancers that usually occur in children. They
may grow very quickly.

Oligodendroglial Tumors

Oligodendroglial tumors begin in the brain cells called
oligodendrocytes, which provide support and
nourishment for the cells that transmit nerve impulses. There are
different types of oligodendroglial
tumors, which are defined by how the cells look under a microscope.


Well-differentiated oligodendroglioma

Well-differentiated oligodendrogliomas are slow-growing tumors that look
very much like normal
cells.


Anaplastic oligodendroglioma

Anaplastic oligodendrogliomas grow more quickly, and the cancer cells
look very different from
normal cells.

Other Brain Tumors


Mixed gliomas

Mixed gliomas are brain tumors that occur in more than one type of brain
cell, including cells of
astrocytes, ependymal cells, and/or oligodendrocytes.


Medulloblastoma

Medulloblastomas are brain tumors that begin in the lower part of the
brain. They are almost always
found in children or young adults. This type of cancer may spread from
the brain to the spine.


Pineal parenchymal tumors

Pineal region tumors are tumors found in or around a tiny organ located
near the center of the brain
(the pineal gland). The tumors can be slow growing (pineocytomas) or
fast growing
(pineoblastomas). Astrocytomas may also start here.


Germ cell tumors

Germ cell tumors arise from the sex cells. There are different kinds of
germ cells, including
germinomas, embryonal carcinomas, choriocarcinomas, and teratomas.


Craniopharyngioma

Craniopharyngiomas are tumors that occur near the pituitary gland. The
pituitary gland is a small
organ about the size of a pea; this gland is located just above the back
of the nose and controls many
of the body's functions.


Meningioma

Meningiomas are tumors that occur in the membranes that cover and
protect the brain and spinal
cord (the meninges). Meningiomas usually grow slowly.


Malignant meningioma

Malignant meningioma is a rare tumor that grows more quickly than other
meningiomas.


Choroid Plexus Tumors

The choroid plexus is tissue located in the spaces inside the brain
called ventricles. The choroid
plexus makes the fluid that fills the ventricles and surrounds the brain
and spinal cord. Tumors of the
choroid plexus can grow slowly (choroid plexus papilloma) or grow more
rapidly (anaplastic choroid
plexus papilloma). The rapidly growing tumors are more likely to spread
to other places in the brain
and to the spinal cord.


Recurrent

Recurrent disease means that the cancer has come back (recurred) after
it has been treated. It may
come back in the brain or in another part of the body.



TREATMENT OPTION OVERVIEW


How adult brain tumors are treated

There are treatments for all patients with an adult brain tumor. Three
kinds of treatment are used:

     surgery
     radiation therapy
     chemotherapy

Surgery is the most common treatment of adult brain tumors. To take out
the cancer from the brain,
a doctor will cut a part of the bone from the skull to get to the brain.
This operation is called a
craniotomy. After the doctor removes the cancer, the bone will be put
back or a piece of metal or
fabric will be used to cover the opening in the skull.

Radiation therapy uses x-rays produced by a machine called a linear
accelerator or a cobalt machine
to kill cancer cells from the outside and shrink tumors (external-beam
radiation therapy). Radiation
therapy may also be used by putting materials that produce radiation
(radioisotopes) through thin
plastic tubes into the tumor to kill cancer cells from the inside
(internal radiation therapy).

Chemotherapy uses drugs to kill cancer cells. Chemotherapy may be taken
by pill, or it may be put
into the body by a needle in the vein or muscle. Chemotherapy is called
a systemic treatment
because the drug enters the bloodstream, travels through the body, and
can kill cancer cells
throughout the body.

Biological therapy (using the body's immune system to fight cancer) is
also being studied in clinical
trials. Biological therapy tries to get the body to fight cancer. It
uses materials made by the body or
made in a laboratory to boost, direct, or restore the body's natural
defenses against disease.
Biological therapy is sometimes called biological response modifier
therapy or immunotherapy.
Treatment by type

Treatment of adult brain tumor depends on the type and stage of the
disease, and the patient's age
and overall health.

Standard treatment may be considered because of its effectiveness in
past studies, or participation in
a clinical trial may be considered. Not all patients are cured with
standard therapy, and some
standard treatments may have more side effects than are desired. For
these reasons, clinical trials are
designed to find better ways to treat cancer patients and are based on
the most up-to-date
information. Clinical trials are ongoing in most parts of the country
for most types of adult brain
tumor. To learn more about clinical trials, call the Cancer Information
Service at 1-800-4-CANCER
(1-800-422-6237); TTY at 1-800-332-8615.



ADULT NONINFILTRATING ASTROCYTOMA

Treatment may be one of the following:

     1. Surgery to remove the cancer.

     2. Surgery followed by external-beam radiation therapy.

     3. If anaplastic astrocytoma comes back (recurs) after surgery,
treatment may be radiation
     therapy if it was not given before. If radiation therapy was given
before, clinical trials of
     chemotherapy or biological therapy should be considered.



ADULT WELL-DIFFERENTIATED MILDLY AND MODERATELY
ANAPLASTIC ASTROCYTOMA

Treatment may be one of the following:

     1. Surgery followed by external-beam radiation therapy.

     2. Surgery alone.

     3. A clinical trial of surgery followed by radiation therapy and
chemotherapy.



ADULT ANAPLASTIC ASTROCYTOMA

Treatment may be one of the following:

     1. Surgery followed by external-beam radiation therapy.

     2. Surgery followed by external-beam radiation therapy and
chemotherapy.

     3. A clinical trial of new forms of radiation therapy, such as
internal radiation, radiation given
     during surgery, or radiation given with drugs to make the cancer
cells more sensitive to
     radiation.

     4. A clinical trial of chemotherapy or biological therapy following
radiation therapy.

     5. A clinical trial of chemotherapy drugs, which are placed in the
body during surgery.



ADULT GLIOBLASTOMA MULTIFORME

Treatment may be one of the following:

     1. Surgery followed by external-beam radiation therapy and
chemotherapy.

     2. Surgery followed by external-beam radiation therapy.

     3. A clinical trial of new forms of radiation therapy, such as
internal radiation, radiation given
     during surgery, or radiation given with drugs to make the cancer
cells more sensitive to
     radiation.

     4. A clinical trial of chemotherapy or biological therapy following
radiation therapy.

     5. A clinical trial of chemotherapy drugs, which are placed in the
body during surgery.



ADULT BRAIN STEM GLIOMA

Treatment may be one of the following:






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