Re: [MOL] malignant schwannoma [01701] Medicine On Line


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Re: [MOL] malignant schwannoma



What is non-small cell lung cancer?

Lung cancers can be divided into two types: small cell lung cancer and non-small
cell lung cancer.
The cancer cells of each type grow and spread in different ways, and they are
treated differently.
Non-small cell lung cancer is usually associated with prior smoking, passive
smoking, or radon
exposure. (A separate patient information summary on small cell lung cancer is
also available in
PDQ).

The main kinds of non-small cell lung cancer are named for the type of cells
found in the cancer:
squamous cell carcinoma (also called epidermoid carcinoma), adenocarcinoma,
large cell
carcinoma, adenosquamous carcinoma, and undifferentiated carcinoma.

Non-small cell lung cancer is a common disease. It is usually treated by surgery
(taking out the
cancer in an operation) or radiation therapy (using high-dose x-rays to kill
cancer cells). However,
chemotherapy may be used in some patients.

The prognosis (chance of recovery) and choice of treatment depend on the stage
of the cancer
(whether it is just in the lung or has spread to other places), tumor size, the
type of lung cancer,
whether there are symptoms, and the patient's general health.



STAGE EXPLANATION


Stages of non-small cell lung cancer

Once lung cancer has been found (diagnosis), more tests will be done to find out
if the cancer has
spread from the lung to other parts of the body (staging). A doctor needs to
know the stage to
plan treatment. The following stages are used for non-small cell lung cancer:


Occult stage

Cancer cells are found in sputum, but no tumor can be found in the lung.


Stage 0

Cancer is only found in a local area and only in a few layers of cells. It has
not grown through the
top lining of the lung. Another term for this type of lung cancer is carcinoma
in situ.


Stage I

The cancer is only in the lung, and normal tissue is around it.


Stage II

Cancer has spread to nearby lymph nodes.


Stage III

Cancer has spread to the chest wall or diaphragm near the lung; or the cancer
has spread to the
lymph nodes in the area that separates the two lungs (mediastinum); or to the
lymph nodes on the
other side of the chest or in the neck. Stage III is further divided into stage
IIIA (usually can be
operated on) and stage IIIB (usually cannot be operated on).


Stage IV

Cancer has spread to other parts of the body.


Recurrent

Cancer has come back (recurred) after previous treatment.



TREATMENT OPTION OVERVIEW


How non-small cell lung cancer is treated

Chemotherapy uses drugs to kill cancer cells. Chemotherapy may be taken by pill,
or it may be
put into the body by a needle in the vein or muscle. Chemotherapy is called a
systemic treatment
because the drug enters the bloodstream, travels through the body, and can kill
cancer cells
outside the lungs.

Chemoprevention uses drugs to prevent a second cancer from occurring.

Radiation therapy uses high-energy x-rays to kill cancer cells and shrink
tumors. Radiation may
come from a machine outside the body (external radiation therapy) or from
putting materials that
produce radiation (radioisotopes) through thin plastic tubes in the area where
the cancer cells are
found (internal radiation therapy).

One new type of radiation therapy is called radiosurgery. In radiosurgery,
radiation is directly
focused on the tumor, and involves as little normal tissue as possible.
Radiosurgery is usually used
as treatment of tumors that involve the brain.

Cryosurgery freezes the tumor and kills it. Photodynamic therapy uses a certain
type of light and a
special chemical to kill cancer cells. Laser therapy uses a narrow beam of light
to kill cancer cells.
Cryosurgery and photodynamic therapy are usually used in clinical trials.

Surgery, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy are used to treat non-small cell
lung cancer.
However, these treatments often do not cure the disease.

If lung cancer is found, a patient may want to think about taking part in one of
the many clinical
trials being done to improve treatment. Clinical trials are ongoing in most
parts of the country for
all stages of non-small cell lung cancer. Treatment choices can be discussed
with a doctor.

Patients with non-small cell lung cancer can be divided into three groups,
depending on the stage
of the cancer and the treatment that is planned. The first group (stages 0, I,
and II) includes
patients whose cancers can be taken out by surgery. The operation that takes out
only a small
part of the lung is called a wedge resection. When a whole section (lobe) of the
lung is taken out,
the operation is called a lobectomy. When one whole lung is taken out, it is
called a
pneumonectomy.

Radiation therapy may be used to treat patients in this group who cannot have
surgery because
they have other medical problems. Like surgery, radiation therapy is called
local treatment
because it works only on the cells in the area being treated.

The second group of patients has lung cancer that has spread to nearby tissue or
to lymph nodes.
These patients can be treated with radiation therapy alone or with surgery and
radiation,
chemotherapy and radiation, or chemotherapy alone.

The third group of patients has lung cancer that has spread to other parts of
the body. Radiation
therapy may be used to shrink the cancer and to relieve pain. Chemotherapy may
be used to treat
some patients in this group.



OCCULT NON-SMALL CELL LUNG CANCER

Tests are done to find the main tumor (cancer). Lung cancer that is found at
this early stage can be
cured by surgery.



STAGE 0 NON-SMALL CELL LUNG CANCER

Treatment may be one of the following:

     1. Surgery to cure these very early cancers. However, these patients may
get a second lung
     cancer that may not be able to be taken out by surgery.

     2. Photodynamic therapy used internally.



STAGE I NON-SMALL CELL LUNG CANCER

Treatment may be one of the following:

     1. Surgery.

     2. Radiation therapy (for patients who cannot be operated on).

     3. Clinical trials of chemotherapy following surgery.

     4. Clinical trials of chemoprevention following other therapy.

     5. Clinical trials of photodynamic therapy used internally.



STAGE II NON-SMALL CELL LUNG CANCER

Treatment may be one of the following:

     1. Surgery to take out the tumor and lymph nodes.

     2. Radiation therapy (for patients who cannot be operated on).

     3. Surgery and/or radiation therapy with or without chemotherapy.



STAGE III NON-SMALL CELL LUNG CANCER

Stage IIIA non-small cell lung cancer

Treatment may be one of the following:

     1. Surgery alone.

     2. Chemotherapy with other treatments.

     3. Surgery and radiation therapy.

     4. Radiation therapy alone.

     5. Laser therapy and/or internal radiation therapy.

Stage IIIB non-small cell lung cancer

Treatment may be one of the following:

     1. Radiation therapy alone.

     2. Chemotherapy plus radiation therapy.

     3. Chemotherapy plus radiation therapy followed by surgery.

     4. Chemotherapy alone.

     5. Cryotherapy plus radiation therapy.



STAGE IV NON-SMALL CELL LUNG CANCER

Treatment may be one of the following:

     1. Radiation therapy.

     2. Chemotherapy.

     3. Chemotherapy and radiation therapy.

     4. Laser therapy and/or internal radiation therapy.



RECURRENT NON-SMALL CELL LUNG CANCER

Treatment may be one of the following:

     1. Radiation therapy to control symptoms.

     2. Chemotherapy.

     3. Chemotherapy with radiotherapy.

     4. For some patients who have a very small amount of tumor that has spread
to the brain,
     surgery may be used to remove the tumor.

     5. Laser therapy or internal radiation therapy.

     6. Radiosurgery (for certain patients who cannot be operated on).



TO LEARN MORE

TO LEARN MORE..... CALL 1-800-4-CANCER

To learn more about lung cancer, call the National Cancer Institute's Cancer
Information Service
at 1-800-4-CANCER (1-800-422-6237); TTY at 1-800-332-8615. By dialing this
toll-free
number, trained information specialists can answer your questions.

The Cancer Information Service also has booklets about cancer that are available
to the public
and can be sent on request. The following booklets about lung cancer may be
helpful:

     What You Need To Know About Lung Cancer

The following general booklets related to questions on cancer may also be
helpful:

     What You Need To Know About Cancer
     Radiation Therapy and You: A Guide to Self-Help During Treatment
     Chemotherapy and You: A Guide to Self-Help During Treatment
     Eating Hints for Cancer Patients
     Taking Time: Support for People with Cancer and the People Who Care About
          Them
     What Are Clinical Trials All About?
     Advanced Cancer: Living Each Day
     When Cancer Recurs: Meeting the Challenge Again

There are many other places where people can get material and information about
cancer
treatment and services. The social service office at a hospital can be checked
for local and
national agencies that help with getting information about finances, getting to
and from treatment,
getting care at home, and dealing with problems.

For more information from the National Cancer Institute, please write to this
address:

     National Cancer Institute
     Office of Cancer Communications
     31 Center Drive, MSC 2580
     Bethesda, MD 20892-2580

Date Last Modified: 04/98


If you want to know more about cancer and how it is treated, or if you wish to
know about
clinical trials for your type of cancer, you can call the NCI's Cancer
Information Service at
1-800-422-6237, toll free. A trained information specialist can talk with you
and answer
your questions.





doris ruthi lewis wrote:

> Dear Sirs:
>
> My sister diagnosed lung malignant schwannoma last May.  She went on a
> surgery and removed it together with half of her left lung.  Right after
> surgery, she started to suffer from great pain.  It was the cancer
> again, but on T5 and T6.  It was too big and too dangerous to do a
> surgery.  She lost most of her ability to walk.  Now she is treating
> with radiation and chemical therapy.
>
> I am searching for more information about this terrible desease and ways
> to help her, since all the doctors we have been seeing in Brazil, tell
> us that her case is difficult and rare.
>
> Can anyone help me??
>
> I would appreciate and be very grateful.
>
> Sincerely Yours,
>
> Doris R. Lewis
> ------------------------------------------------------------------------
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